Calvin Coolidge – an appreciation

Calvin Coolidge

Reacting to the momentous event of his being sworn in as president following the sudden death of Warren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge deadpanned “I believe I can swing it.” In the minds of his contemporaries, he did indeed swing it, but in the intervening decades, most historians have frowned on the Republican. Several times over the last half-century, the father-son duo of Arthur M. Schlesinger Sr. and Jr. have asked their fellow professors to rank America’s chief executives. These academics always deem Coolidge “below average”–in other words, they think he’s about as accomplished as the dithering Millard Fillmore. Cool Cal didn’t do much better in a 1982 Chicago Tribune poll of 49 “distinguished historians”; they placed him immediately behind Jimmy Carter. In the 1997 Ridings-McIver survey of historians and former politicians, Coolidge came in at number 33, right below Richard Nixon. It may be said that he was unfairly treated by historians almost from the day he left office.

Yet Coolidge deserves better. Continue reading

Is “austerity” a dirty word?

In the current climate of economic turmoil, with Europe and the U.S. both trying to push back the fateful pay day when decades of governmental overreach and overspending come home to roost at the same time that economic growth appears to be stalling, so-called liberals and progressives like to argue against budget cuts with the Keynesian argument that austerity would be poison for any hopes of economic recovery, let alone renewed growth. As the economy lurches, and stock market indices tumble, you will no doubt see this argument made forcefully by proponents of unrestrained government spending.

Lucky for us, we can turn to at least one significant historical example when the U.S. government did NOT resort to hectic macroeconomic retooling, pump-priming, and deficit spending. As Professor George Selgin explains, the sharp economic reversal of 1920 did not deter the government (and this means essentially the just-elected Harding government, as the Wilson administration was hardly functioning at the end of Wilson’s 2nd term) from prioritizing cutting the bloated wartime budget and retiring the enormous wartime debt. Far from plunging the nation into ruin, these policies worked so well that within two years an unemployment rate of close to 12 percent had given way to labor shortages, and industrial production, which had fallen precipitously in 1920, rose to new record levels.Notably, government spending was tightly controlled during the Harding/Coolidge years, while the economy boomed.

As Selgin points out, Treasury Secretary Mellon was unfairly tarred as “liquidationist” by none other than Herbert Hoover, who did not in fact follow austerity measures while battling the Great Depression. Moreover, the Harding/Mellon austerity of 1920/1921, which was continued under the Coolidge administration, is rarely given credit for turning the economy around. It seems austerity just can’t win!

Inactive presidents

It’s always fascinating to see, courtesy of WordPress, the search terms that lead people to this site. Today, I note that someone typed in “why were the 1920s presidents considered so inactive?” which led her or him to this blog.

I only have the briefest of moments to begin commenting on this question today and hope to flesh it out a little more in the near future. The charge of “inactivity”, leveled against any president, is usually based on a very expansive view of the role of the presidency. Presidents, in this view, should be the movers and shapers of the national agenda in a proactive way.

It should be noted that this expanded view of the powers of the presidency goes far beyond what the Constitution’s framers had in mind. The last thing they intended for the presidency to be was a carbon copy of the British monarchy, and thus they circumscribed a very limited set of powers and competencies for the “chief magistrate.”

Harding was elected by a landslide in 1920 on a platform of “normalcy” which he rightly understood as a mandate to get the government off the backs of the people and not burden them with any more progressive schemes. Coolidge followed that policy, and saw it as his mandate to stand, as William F. Buckley later said in a different context, athwart history yelling “Stop!”

In 1926, Walter Lippmann described Coolidge as having mastered the “technique of anti-propaganda” by reducing public interest in government, by deflating enthusiasm for ambitious programs, projects, and political dreams coming from Washington. The Democrats and Progressives of his time worked hard to whip up passions for policies, programs, for politics generally—but Coolidge managed to take the wind out of those schemes:

“Mr. Coolidge’s genius for inactivity is developed to a very high point. It is far from being an indolent inactivity. It is a grim, determined, alert inactivity which keeps Mr. Coolidge occupied constantly. Nobody has ever worked harder at inactivity, with such force of character, with such unremitting attention to detail, with such conscientious devotion to the task. Inactivity is a political philosophy and a party program with Mr. Coolidge, and nobody should mistake his unflinching adherence to it for the soft and easy desire to let things slide. Mr. Coolidge’s inactivity is not merely the absence of activity. It is on the contrary a steady application to the task of neutralizing and thwarting political activity wherever there are signs of life.”

Progressives of his day and historians of today may decry and belittle Coolidge’s penchant for inactivity, but it gave the country a much-needed respite between the progressive experiments unleashed by presidents Wilson and FDR, respectively. It is more than a little ironic that anyone aiming to emulate Coolidge today would need to do a lot more than merely being stubbornly inactive – he (or she) would need to actively roll back the progressive accomplishments of the past 80-some years.

Dissing # 28

Over at Slate, David Greenberg feels compelled to defend Woodrow Wilson against attacks by Glenn Beck and othe conservatives. Here, we have pointed out how illiberal and awful Wilson was from a libertarian perspective and our friends at reason recently compiled a short list of Wilsonian offenses. Greenberg appears to think that a century’s worth of fairly uncritical acceptance of Progressivist tenets have made them unassailable. I think evidence is accumulating that it was the central Progressivist idea that government was needed to step in and regulate the economy is the idea that in the long run will be seen as a detour, if not in fact a wrong turn. From my reading of Coolidge I get the impression that while over the course of his political career he was open to and even supportive of some progressive positions, such as woman suffrage, most of the rest were anathema to him. I’d be interested in learning what readers of this blog think!

Update: Calvin Coolidge, who encountered Wilson on a few occasions, eulogized him on February 4, 1924 with the words,

The death of Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States from March 4, 1913, to March 4, 1921, which occurred at 11:15 o’clock today at his home at Washington, District of Columbia, deprives the country of a most distinguished citizen, and is an event which causes universal and genuine sorrow. To many of us it brings the sense of a profound personal bereavement.

His early profession as a lawyer was abandoned to enter academic life. In this chosen field he attained the highest rank as an educator, and has left his impress upon the intellectual thought of the country. From the Presidency of Princeton University he was called by his fellow citizens to be the Chief Executive of the State of New Jersey. The duties of this high office he so conducted as to win the confidence of the people of the United States, who twice elected him to the Chief Magistrate of the Republic. As President of the United States he was moved by an earnest desire to promote the best interests of the country as he conceived them. His acts were prompted by high motives and his sincerity of purpose can not be questioned. He led the nation through the terrific struggle of the world war with a lofty idealism which never failed him.

He gave utterance to the aspiration of humanity with an eloquence which held the attention of all the earth and made America a new and enlarged influence in the destiny of mankind.

Water, water everywhere, and not a drop to drink – Coolidge and Prohibition

It is difficult for us today to grasp what a powerful issue Prohibition was in its heyday. We instinctively see the 18th Amendment as an aberration that was never fully accepted or enforced, and surmise that the nation breathed a collective sigh of relief when it was repealed in 1933, having been the law of the land for only about 14 years. If remembered at all, these years are recalled as a time of corruption and racketeering, while the widespread alcoholism and its attendant evils, which spawned the reform movement, are not focused on.

Liquor being poured down the drain during the height of Prohibition

Continue reading

The Sage of Baltimore

In a recent post over at reason, associate editor Damon W. Root takes advantage of the recently published new edition of H.L. Mencken‘s 6-volume Prejudices to praise the famous journalist and critic. As Root documents, and as any reader of Mencken’s works will find, the “Sage of Baltimore” was a foe of Progressivism, denouncing the prototypical Progressive as “one who is in favor of…more paternalism and meddling, more regulation of private affairs and less liberty.” Accordingly, he despised in particular the illiberal presidency of Woodrow Wilson.

Mencken, it is worth adding here, was largely friendly to Coolidge, saying he “has a natural talent for the incomparable English language,” although his assessment of the 30th president changed over time: where he had predicted, in 1927, that Coolidge would be “ranked among the vacuums; it would be difficult to imagine a more obscure and unimportant man,” he directed high praise indeed at the “vacuum” when he wrote in his 1933 obituary,

“We suffer most when the White House bursts with ideas. With a World Saver [Wilson] preceding him (I count out Harding as a mere hallucination) and a Wonder Boy [Hoover] following him he begins to seem, in retrospect, an extremely comfortable and even praiseworthy citizen. His failings are forgotten; the country remembers only the grateful fact that he left it alone. Well, there are worse epitaphs for a statesman. If the day ever comes when Jefferson’s warnings are heeded at last, and we reduce government to its simplest terms, it may very well happen that Cal’s bones now resting inconspicuously in the Vermont granite will come to be revered as those of a man who really did the nation some service.”

Coolidge and the 1920s – the last hurrah of the Gilded Age?

The more I begin to read up on the Coolidge era, the more I also see the need to research more deeply into the years and decades preceding it. And my (preliminary) conclusion is that Calvin Coolidge indeed was the last of that breed of presidents who, by virtue of their traditional, narrow constitutional view of the presidency, largely refrained from “embiggening” (to use a Simpsons word) the importance and reach of that office.

With the exception of a few comparatively activist presidents, Andrew Jackson and Abraham Lincoln come to mind, that view had been dominant from the inception of the United States. The framers had devoted a lot of discussion to the question of what powers the “chief magistrate” should have, which is only natural as the new nation was about to escape the oppressive rule of the king of England. I’m no constitutional scholar, but if you consult the articles about the president, it is easy to see that an office with the extraordinary powers it has amassed today was far from the framers’ minds.

Continue reading

Presidents Taft and Coolidge

My recent post about portly presidents prompted me to do some thinking and reading about William Howard Taft, the 27th president, and a one-term conservative wedged between the progressive presidencies of Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson. Taft deserves more consideration than he has generally received. He is likely to remain the only president to have also served as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, a lifelong ambition of his that was realized when president Harding named the retired Taft to that post in 1921. Thus, one link between Taft and Coolidge is the fact that it was Taft who swore in Coolidge as president in 1925.

Another link is that Taft and Coolidge, besides the unfortunate Harding, were the last 19th century presidents in the sense that they held a strictly limited view of the constitutional powers of the presidency. Taft was severely criticized, and remains out of favor with historians, for having abandoned the “progressive” Republican stance of his mentor Roosevelt. Coolidge was similarly criticized as a stand-patter who did not use the powers of the presidency to stave off economic collapse and who even was reluctant to engage the federal government in disaster relief.

Taft held Coolidge in high esteem. On June 5, 1927 he wrote to his son shortly before Coolidge made his famous “I Do Not Choose To Run” statement:

“Coolidge amuses me greatly. I think he is a very long-headed politician. I think he has made a very good President. My only criticism of him would be his selection of men, because I don’t think he has good judgment in that regard, and he hasn’t done as well by us in the selection of Judges as  he might, although he has appointed some good ones. Still he would make a great deal better President than Al Smith and his continuance in office would give a stability to our Government and the progress of the country that would be worth a great deal.”

About a year later, and indicative of some uncertainty that apparently still remained about whether or not Coolidge would be open to be drafted by a GOP convention, Taft wrote perceptively:

“Coolidge will not run. I don’t think his wife is in good condition and I don’t think he is, and he does not want to run, and he is a man who ordinarily does not do what he does not want to.”  This may be tinged with a little envy on Taft’s part, in that he had been pushed largely against his will into the presidency, a post he did not enjoy.

This blog will return to the interesting subject of Taft and his presidency at a later date. Meanwhile, here is one photograph showing Chief Justice Taft and Calvin Coolidge together (with Mexican president Plutarco Elías Calles). Notably, the always hefty Taft was off his peak weight in his Supreme Court years. Psychologically versed historians have linked the ups and downs of Taft’s weight to his enjoyment of the various high offices he held, with overeating compensating for the pressures and disappointments of his presidency.

William Howard Taft, Mexican president Calles, and Calvin Coolidge